A number of different government agencies have responsibilities for export controls. Each holds jurisdiction over specific types of technology or restricted trade. Those most relevant are:
Department of State
The Department of State controls the export of "defense articles and defense services" under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). In coordination with the Department of Defense, the State Department determines if an article or service is to be export controlled based on whether the item or technology: (1) Is inherently military in character, or (2) was specially designed, modified, or engineered for military applications. If so, the item or technical information is placed on the U.S. Munitions List.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
The NRC controls the export of certain nuclear equipment and materials under the Atomic Energy Act and the Non-Proliferation Act.
Department of Commerce
Commerce controls the export of all commodities, technologies, and software not regulated by another government agency. This is done through the Department's Bureau of Export Administration (BXA), which maintains an extensive, multi-volume manual of Export Administration Regulations - known as the EAR.
Department of Energy (DOE)
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Last modified: March 11, 2006